“Racialism” is the belief that the human species is naturally divided into races, which are ostensibly distinct biological categories. Many dictionaries define the term racialism as synonymous with racism.
1. Lips, Larynx, and the Glottis
The Origins of Speech
Phylogenetic Development of Speech
Today I spent some time thinking about issues concerning speech and evolution (and modern “organa” concerning race). I encourage all of you to do research on this topic.
Speaking is the default modality for language in all cultures. Humans’ first recourse is to encode our thoughts in sound — a method which depends on sophisticated capacities for controlling the lips, tongue and other components of the vocal apparatus.
Taking the pharynx as a starting point for the ontogenetic learning of the speech production capacity offers fruitful insights into the phylogenetic development of speech.
2. The Articulatory Function of the Larynx and the Origins of Speech
Introduction: The ‘laryngeal articulator,’ consisting of the glottal mechanism, the supraglottic tube, the pharyngeal/epiglottal mechanism, and including three levels of folds: the vocal folds, the ventricular folds, and the aryepiglottic folds, is shown to be responsible for the generation of multiple source vibrations and for the complex modification of the pharyngeal resonating chamber that accounts for a wide range of contrastive auditory qualities. These qualities are observed in a surprisingly large number of the languages of the world, both linguistically and paralinguistically, and they account for sounds which have been labeled as ‘pharyngeal,’ as ‘epiglottal,’ and as various phonation types. They reflect an expanding range of what have been known as the ‘states of the glottis’ and which may be more properly termed ‘states of the larynx.’ It has also been observed that infants, in their first months of life, produce a range of qualities, reflecting both phonatory possibilities and stricture types, that can also be attributed to the laryngeal articulator mechanism. Systematic observation of infants’ early speech production reveals that the control of articulatory detail in the pharynx is mastered during the first year of life. Understanding and control of manner of articulation in the pharynx appears to be a prerequisite for expanding articulatory control into the oral vocal tract. Taking the pharynx as a starting point for the ontogenetic learning of the speech production capacity offers fruitful insights into the phylogenetic development of speech.
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You may also want to read this Wikipedia article:
Origin of Speech (Evolution of Speech Organs)
(Capacity for speech/ Glottis/ Evolution of the speech organs/ Hypoglossal canal/ Epiglottis)
3. Glottalic Theory
The glottalic theory is that Proto-Indo-European had ejective stops, *pʼ *tʼ *kʼ, instead of the plain voiced ones, *b *d *ɡ as hypothesized by the usual Proto-Indo-European phonological reconstructions.
4. Ebook: The Emergence of the Speech Capacity
Recent studies of vocal development in infants have shed new light on old questions of how the speech capacity is founded and how it may have evolved in the human species. Vocalizations in the very first months of life appear to provide previously unrecognized clues to the earliest steps in the process by which language came to exist and the processes by which communicative disorders arise.
5. THE ISSUES: SCIENTIFIC “RACIALISM”
Race and intelligence
The Mismeasure of Man by Stephen Jay Gould [*Free eBook*]
(This book being both a history and critique of the statistical methods and cultural motivations underlying biological determinism.)
The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life
Stanford University’s Paul Ehrlich on the problems of the modern jaw (which is becoming, generally, too small). Also: Royal bloodlines — Habsburg jaw, Habsburg lip, or Austrian Lip